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% B Cell

Whole Blood

The Lymphocyte MAP, Cyrex Laboratories

Optimal range:   6 - 18 %

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a crucial component of the adaptive immune system. They function primarily by producing antibodies against antigens, which are substances recognized as foreign by the immune system. These antibodies are specific proteins that can directly neutralize invaders or tag them for destruction by other parts of the immune system. The "% B Cell" marker is thus an important indicator of the body's ability to mount an effective humoral immune response.

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% CD 3 Pos. Lymph.

Blood

T + B-Lymphocyte Differential, LabCorp

Optimal range:   57.5 - 86.2 %

The biomarker "% CD 3 Pos. Lymph." in a T + B-Lymphocyte Differential panel from Labcorp refers to the percentage of lymphocytes in the blood that are CD3 positive. CD3 is a protein complex and a T-cell co-receptor that defines T-lymphocytes, which are crucial components of the immune system.

This marker is used to evaluate the immune system's health, particularly in diagnosing and monitoring conditions affecting T-cell function, such as immunodeficiency disorders or certain types of leukemia. The measurement of CD3 positive lymphocytes helps in understanding the proportion of T cells in the overall lymphocyte population, providing insight into the body's adaptive immune response.

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% CD 3 Pos. Lymph.

Lymphocyte Activity Profile

Optimal range:   57.5 - 86.2 %

The proportion of all immune cells that are T cells. This figure is rarely used for making treatment decisions.

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% CD 4 Pos. Lymph.

Lymphocyte Activity Profile

Optimal range:   30.8 - 58.5 %

The CD4 percentage (CD4%) is the percentage of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that are CD4 cells.

The immune system contains lots of different cells. The two main types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. CD4 cells are a type of T cell. So the CD4% looks at the CD4 count in relation to other immune cells.

CD4% is sometimes a more stable indication of whether there has been a change in the immune system. If the percentage hasn’t changed the change in the absolute count is not important.

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% CD 4 Pos. Lymph.

Blood

T + B-Lymphocyte Differential, LabCorp

Optimal range:   30.8 - 58.5 %

The CD4 percentage (CD4%) is the percentage of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that are CD4 cells.

The immune system contains lots of different cells. The two main types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. CD4 cells are a type of T cell. So the CD4% looks at the CD4 count in relation to other immune cells.

CD4% is sometimes a more stable indication of whether there has been a change in the immune system. If the percentage hasn’t changed the change in the absolute count is not important.

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% CD 8 Pos. Lymph.

Blood

T + B-Lymphocyte Differential, LabCorp

Optimal range:   12 - 35.5 %

The proportion of all T cells that are CD8 cells.

CD8 cells are also called cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. They help fight cancer and germs that live inside your cells (intracellular pathogens).

The CD8 percentage is sometimes more reliable than the absolute count of CD8 because it tends to vary less.

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% CD 8 Pos. Lymph.

Lymphocyte Activity Profile

Optimal range:   12 - 35.5 %

The proportion of all T cells that are CD8 cells.

CD8 cells are also called cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. They help fight cancer and germs that live inside your cells (intracellular pathogens).

The CD8 percentage is sometimes more reliable than the absolute count of CD8 because it tends to vary less.

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% CD19 (B Cells)

Lymphocyte Subset Panel 2

Optimal range:   6 - 29 %

The CD19 antigen (aka B-lymphocyte antigen CD19 or Cluster of Differentiation 19) plays an important role in clinical oncology. It’s a protein found on the surface of B-cells, a type of white blood cell.

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% CD19+ Lymphs

Blood

T + B-Lymphocyte Differential, LabCorp

Optimal range:   3.3 - 25.4 %

The biomarker "% CD19+ Lymphs" in a T + B-Lymphocyte Differential panel from Labcorp quantifies the percentage of lymphocytes in the blood that are B cells, identified by the presence of the CD19 protein on their surface. CD19 is a critical component of the B cell receptor complex and plays a vital role in the development and function of B cells. B cells are essential for the adaptive immune response, primarily responsible for antibody production.

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% CD3 (Mature T Cells)

Lymphocyte Subset Panel 2

Optimal range:   57 - 85 %

The percentage of CD3+ T cells, often referred to as mature T cells, is a crucial component of the immune system and plays a central role in defending the body against infections and other foreign invaders. These cells are characterized by the presence of the CD3 surface marker, which is involved in T cell receptor signaling. CD3+ T cells can be further divided into two main subsets: CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) and CD8+ T cells (cytotoxic T cells). CD4+ T cells assist in orchestrating immune responses by coordinating various immune cells and directing them to combat specific pathogens. On the other hand, CD8+ T cells are responsible for directly identifying and destroying infected or abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells and cancer cells. An optimal balance and functionality of these T cell subsets are critical for a healthy immune response.

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% CD3+CD25+ Lymphs

Lymphocyte Subset Panel 2

Optimal range:   4.9 - 25.9 %

This test is used to detect soluble IL-2Rα in human plasma or serum produced in response to increased activation of B and T cells and immune system activation. Studies show elevated levels of sIL-2Rα in serum with the onset of rejection episodes in allograft recipients, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in the course of some leukemias and lymphomas. This test may be of diagnostic and/or prognostic value in HLH, granulomatous, autoimmune, and malignant diseases.

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% CD3+CD25+ Lymphs

Lymphocyte Activity Profile

Optimal range:   4.9 - 25.9 %

This test is used to detect soluble IL-2Rα in human plasma or serum produced in response to increased activation of B and T cells and immune system activation. Studies show elevated levels of sIL-2Rα in serum with the onset of rejection episodes in allograft recipients, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in the course of some leukemias and lymphomas. This test may be of diagnostic and/or prognostic value in HLH, granulomatous, autoimmune, and malignant diseases.

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% CD3- CD57+ Lymphocyte

Whole Blood

The Lymphocyte MAP, Cyrex Laboratories

Optimal range:   1.6 - 6.2 %

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% CD4

Lymphocyte Subset Panel 2

Optimal range:   30 - 61 %

The CD4 percentage (CD4%) is the percentage of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that are CD4 cells.

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% CD57+ CD8+ T Cell

Whole Blood

The Lymphocyte MAP, Cyrex Laboratories

Optimal range:   9.2 - 16.6 %

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% CD8

Lymphocyte Subset Panel 2

Optimal range:   12 - 42 %

The proportion of all T cells that are CD8 cells.

CD8 cells are also called cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. They help fight cancer and germs that live inside your cells (intracellular pathogens).

The CD8 percentage is sometimes more reliable than the absolute count of CD8 because it tends to vary less.

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% CD8+CD57+ Lymphs

Lymphocyte Activity Profile

Optimal range:   0 - 11.3 %

The CD57 test is offered in some clinical laboratories and is being used by some health practitioners to evaluate and follow patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease.

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% Cytotoxic NK cells (CD16+)

Whole Blood

The Lymphocyte MAP, Cyrex Laboratories

Optimal range:   2 - 10 %

The percentage of Cytotoxic NK (Natural Killer) cells expressing CD16+. CD16+, also known as FcγRIII, is a low affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulins G (IgG), found on the surface of NK cells, and plays a pivotal role in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This mechanism is crucial for the immune system's ability to target and eliminate cells that are infected by pathogens or transformed malignantly.

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% Free Copper

NutriSTAT, NutriPATH

Optimal range:   5 - 25 %

The marker % Free Copper on a Nutristat test signifies the proportion of unbound or available copper in the bloodstream. This measurement helps assess the balance between free copper and the copper bound to proteins like ceruloplasmin.

Abnormalities in % Free Copper levels can indicate imbalances in copper metabolism and potential health issues, such as Wilson's disease or other copper-related disorders. Nutristat tests, which assess copper, zinc, and related ratios, aid in evaluating nutritional and metabolic aspects related to these essential minerals.

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% Free Copper (BLOOD - SERUM)

Serum

NutriStat Basic Profile, US BioTek

Optimal range:   0 - 20 %

The marker % Free Copper on a Nutristat test signifies the proportion of unbound or available copper in the bloodstream. This measurement helps assess the balance between free copper and the copper bound to proteins like ceruloplasmin.

Abnormalities in % Free Copper levels can indicate imbalances in copper metabolism and potential health issues, such as Wilson's disease or other copper-related disorders. Nutristat tests, which assess copper, zinc, and related ratios, aid in evaluating nutritional and metabolic aspects related to these essential minerals.

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